Native Americans have made up an integral part of U.S. military conflicts since America's beginning. Colonists recruited Indian allies during such instances as the Pequot War from 1634–1638, the Revolutionary War, as well as in War of 1812. Native Americans also fought on both sides during the American Civil War, as well as military missions abroad including the most notable, the Codetalkers who served in World War II. The Scouts were active in the American West in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Including those who accompanied General John J. Pershing in 1916 on his expedition to Mexico in pursuit of Pancho Villa. Indian Scouts were officially deactivated in 1947 when their last member retired from the Army at Fort Huachuca, Arizona. For many Indians it was an important form of interaction with white American culture and society their first major encounter with the whites’ way of thinking and doing things. Recruitment and Enlistment Recruitment of Indian scouts was first authorized on 28 July 1866 by an act of Congress. "The President is authorized to enlist and employ in the Territories and Indian country a force of Indians not to exceed one thousand to act as scouts, who shall receive the pay and allowances of cavalry soldiers, and be discharged whenever the necessity for further employment is abated, at the discretion of the department commander." There were different types of scouts, some enlisted as Indian Scouts for brief terms and there were others who were hired as scouts by the U.S. Army. Some individual may have served at different times as a hired scout and an enlisted scout. Prior to the act in 1866 these scouts were considered employees rather than soldiers. Enlistment records and muster rolls, from 1866 to 1912 were in many instances filed by state, some records were broken down by company or military post providing information such as when, where, and by whom the scout was enlisted; period of enlistment; place of birth; age at time of enlistment; physical description; and possibly additional remarks such as discharge information, including date and place of discharge, rank at the time, and if the scout died in service. Indian scouts who were officially enlisted in the army after 1866 were issued old pattern uniforms from surplus stock legally exempt from sale. Their uniforms were worn with less regulation, sometimes mixed with their native dress. In 1870, Captain Bourke of the 3rd cavalry described Apache scouts in Arizona as “almost naked, their only clothing being a muslin loin-cloth, a pair of point toed moccasins and a hat of hawk feather”. In 1876 a description of Crow Scouts reads that they wore, “an old black army hat with top cut out and sides bound round with feathers, fur and scarlet cloth”. With the availability of army clothing some Native scouts took advantage of the availability of the clothing. In 1902 when new regulations were introduced in March the U.S. Scouts received a new more regulated uniform. Fears There existed doubts as to whether Indian Scouts would remain faithful or whether they would betray the white soldiers and turn against them in conflict. The Cibicue Apaches were among the first regular Army Scouts. They are also the only recorded 19th-century incident in which Indian scouts turned against the U.S. Army at Cibicue Creek in Arizona Territory. These Apache scouts were asked to campaign against their own kin, resulting in a mutiny against the army soldiers. Three of the scouts were court- martialed and executed. Reduction of Forces/Pensions The end of hostilities on the frontier meant a reduction in the number of the Indian scouts needed. Army General Order No. 28 issued on March 9, 1891 reduced the number of scouts to 150, distributed among the different departments. This brought the numbers down to; Department of Arizona, 50, Departments of the Dakota, Platte and Missouri, 25 each; Department of Texas, 15, and Departments of the Columbia, 10. Pension files provide information not only on Indian Scouts but also about his family and others with whom he may have served or who knew him or his wife. Indian Scouts and their widows became eligible for pensions with the passage of an act on March 4, 1917, relating to Indian wars from 1859 to 1891. Notable Figures/Recognition Frontier Scouts included; white, native and mixed blood individuals. Native involvement in military service come from different tribes and regions across the United States including Narragansett, Mohegan, Apache, Navajo and native Alaskans (who would become involved in the 1940s). One of the most notable U.S. Army Indian Scouts is, Curley a member of the Crow tribe who became a scout in April 1876 under Colonel John Gibbon. He then joined General Custer. Curley is most often identified as the lone survivor of “Custer’s Last Stand”. He denied witnessing the battle. The Chicago Tribune published an article claiming that Curly had made statements to them about the battle. John F. Finerty claimed that "Curley said that Custer remained alive throughout the greater part of the engagement, animating his men to determined resistance, but about an hour before the close of the fight received a mortal wound." The official website of the Navy lists the American Indian Medal of Honor Winners, including twelve from the 19th century. In the 20th century, five American Indians have been among those soldiers to be distinguished by receiving the United States' highest military honor: This honor is given for military heroism "above and beyond the call of duty”, exhibiting extraordinary bravery, and for some, making the ultimate sacrifice for their country. The role of Native American women in the U.S. Army is being slowly filled by the efforts of such groups as The Women In Military Service For America Memorial Foundation. It is known of individuals such as Tyonajanegen, an Oneida woman, Sacajawea, a Shoshone, and various female nurses have aided the military as far back as the American Revolution. Little information is currently listed on women’s roles as scouts during the 19th century. Insignia In 1890 the Scouts were authorised to wear the branch of service insignia of crossed arrows. In 1942 the insignia was authorised to be worn by the 1st Special Service Force. As their traditions passed into the U.S. Army Special Forces, the crossed arrows became part of their insignia being authorised as branch of service insignia in 1984. Alamo Scouts The Alamo Scouts (U.S. 6th Army Special Reconnaissance Unit) was a reconnaissance unit of the Sixth United States Army in the Pacific Theater of Operations during World War II. The unit is best known for its role in liberating American prisoners of war (POWs) from the Japanese Cabanatuan POW camp near Cabanatuan, Nueva Ecija, Philippines in January 1945. Origins The Scouts were organized on Fergusson Island, New Guinea, on 28 November 1943. Their purpose was to conduct reconnaissance and raider work in the Southwest Pacific Theater. They were under the personal command of Lieutenant General Walter Krueger, Commanding General of the U.S. Sixth Army. Krueger sought to create an all volunteer elite unit consisting of small teams which could operate deep behind enemy lines. Their primary mission was to gather intelligence for the Sixth U.S. Army. The unit was so named because of Krueger's association with San Antonio, Texas and because of his admiration for the defenders of the Alamo. Accomplishments and Legacy In the Scouts' first two years of operation they were credited with liberating 197 Allied prisoners in New Guinea. In January 1945 they provided tactical support for the 6th Ranger Battalion during the raid of the Cabanatuan Prison Camp. The Scouts were credited with the capture of 84 Japanese prisoners of war, and only two Scouts were wounded in the mission. The Alamo Scouts performed 106 known missions behind enemy lines, mainly in New Guinea and the Philippines without losing a single man. Thus, the Scouts had one of the finest records of any elite unit in World War II. The unit was disbanded at Kyoto, Japan, in November 1945. In 1988, the Alamo Scouts were individually awarded the Special Forces Tab in recognition for their services in WWII and are included in the lineage of the current United States Army Special Forces. Alamo Scouts in the BSA Former Alamo Scout Sergeant Major Kittleson founded the Alamo Scouts, a local Venture Scouting unit, in his hometown area of Toeterville, Iowa after his retirement from the military. The organization offers a military style training environment for local youth. Troop 253 in East Grand Rapids, Michigan has an Alamo Scouts patrol, named in honor of the original unit. Its patrol motto is "Remember!" and the patrol patch was adapted from the World War II unit logo. Five of the seven Tenderfoot Scouts who formed the patrol in 2001 earned their Eagle Rank. Apache Scouts Apache scouts at Fort Wingate, New Mexico in the 1880s The Apache Scouts were part of the United States Army Indian Scouts, most of their service was during the Apache Wars up to 1886 though the last scout retired in 1947. The Apache scouts were the eyes and ears of the United States military and sometimes the cultural translators for the various Apache bands and the Americans. Apache scouts also served in the Navajo War, the Tonto War, the Mexican Border War and they saw stateside duty during World War II. There has been a great deal written about Apache scouts, both as part of United States Army reports from the field and more colorful accounts written after the events by non-Apaches in newspapers and books. Men such as Al Sieber and Tom Horn were sometimes in charge of small groups of Apaches. As was the custom in the United States military, scouts were enlisted with Anglo nicknames or single names. Many Apache scouts received citations for bravery. Apache Scouts by band It is important to note that Apaches were lumped together as a group by outsiders. However, while they may have shared many similar customs and language, they defined themselves by loose bands which tended to be associated with a geographical area. A band was semi nomadic and had clan and kinship ties with neighboring groups. Thus, a Western Apache band did not have many ties to an Eastern Apache band and might be very distrustful. Apache scouts were usually grouped in operational units by band. Tonto Apache scouts were recruited to assist General Crook find Chief Delshay's band who fled the Fort Verde reservation. Crook's Chief of Scouts, Albert Sieber always seemed to have his Tonto scouts with him through the Apache Wars. White Mountain scouts served with Company B under Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood from Fort Apache in 1885 to 1886. General George Crook had high praise for this group which is composed of several bands. "Chiricahuas were the most subordinate, energetic, untiring and, by odds, the most efficient of their command." These scouts were sent to Florida by General Miles, along with those who they tracked for sixteen months in 1885 and 1886, as if these Apache scouts were hostiles to be punished. They were kept captive under nominal arrest as prisoners of war, along with the rest of Geronimo's band whom they'd helped the army track down, for twenty-six years before finally being released. Warm Springs Apache scouts served in Company B under Lieutenant Britton Davis and were in the field tracking Geronimo and Nana. In 1885 Mescalero scouts were with Major Vanm Horn cavalry which was trying to prevent Geronimo, Nana and others from crossing the Rio Grande near Fort Stanton. Service History Navajo War Mescalero Apache scouts served with the army during the Navajo War in 1863 and 1864. One of the last battles of the war involving the scouts occurred along the Pecos River of New Mexico Territory on January 4, 1864. After a band of about 100 Navajo warriors raided the reservation at Bosque Redondo, the local Indian agent led sixty Mescalero's south in the pursuit of the raiders and eventually caught up with them at the Pecos. When the fighting started, the Navajo realized they couldn't escape with their herd of stolen livestock so they took up defensive positions to try to fight off their pursuers. Initially the Navajo were successful in keeping their enemies back but eventually United States Army reinforcements began to arrive, about twenty-five men from the 2nd California Cavalry and the 5th Infantry. The weather was extremely cold throughout the engagment so the Apaches downed their rifles and took up the bow because it was easier to aim. After a long battle the Navajo were forced to retreat without the livestock, leaving an estimated forty dead on the field. Another twenty- five Navajos were estimated to have been wounded and a group the same size escaped. There were no casualties among the Americans or the Apache scouts and they recovered fifty horses and mules. Less than two weeks later Colonel Kit Carson would lead an expedition into Canyon de Chelly, the heart of Navajo territory, capturing most of the inhabitants and ending the war. Yavapai War Apache scouts were employed by the United States Army throughout most of the Apache Wars but it wasn't until about 1870 when General George Crook introduced the idea of enlisting entire companies of scouts. However, at that time, few Apaches were willing to join Crook so he was forced to recruit native Americans from various tribes across the Southwest. The majority of Crook's scouts were Apache, divided into two companies, but at first there were also Navajos, Pimas, Yaquis, Opatas, Papagos, Walapais, Yavapais, and Paiutes, as well as some Mexicans and Americans. General Crook allowed any captured Apache male to join his scouts, believing that "the wilder the Apache was, the more he was likely to know the wiles and statagems of those still out in the mountains. (sic)" While Crook was recruiting natives to fight for him, he was also fighting against the Western Apaches and the closely associated Yavapai tribe in central Arizona Territory. During the Tonto Basin Campaign in 1872, Crook deployed his scouts at the Battle of Salt River Canyon on December 28. Over 100 Yavapai and Tonto men, women and children were held up inside a cave overlooking the Salt River. With some 130 cavalrymen, and about thirty scouts, Crook attacked the cave, killing seventy-six people, including non combatants, and capturing the remaining thirty-four. The general followed up the victory with another at Turret Peak, on March 27, 1873, in which another fifty-seven Yavapais and Tonto Apaches were killed. Only one man was killed on the Americans' side during both engagements and soon after the Yavapai and the Tontos begans flocking to Camp Verde to surrender. The war was not over yet though, small bands of Yavapai and Apache raiders continued to harass the army and the settlers in and around Tonto Basin for two years more. The fighting was mostly skirmishing but it was enough to keep the scouts busy. One of these skirmishes occurred on November 1, 1874 after Tonto Apaches stole some livestock from a rancher in Tonto Basin. Some forty Apache scouts and cavalrymen were then dispatched from Camp Verde to pusrue the hostiles and they caught up with them at Sunset Pass, near the Little Colorado River. A fight ensued that left the furture general Lieutenant Charles King badly wounded in the arm and temporarily stranded. King was rescued by his men who engaged the hostiles for some time but eventually the order to retreat was given. King later wrote a book, titled "Sunset Pass", about his experiences serving with the Apache scouts in Arizona Territory. After the war ended, General Crook departed Arizona for Dakota Territory in 1876, Colonel Augustus P. Kautz took over the command of the scouts and he formed a third company in early 1877 and a fourth in 1878. Upon taking command of the scouts, Kautz wrote; "These scouts supported by a small force of cavalry, are exceedingly efficient, and have succeeded, with one or two exceptions, in finding every party of Indians they have gone in pursuit of. They are a great terror to the runaways from the Reservations, and for such work are more efficient than double the number of soldiers." Border War Following Geronimo's surrender in 1886, there was little need for Apache scouts so their ranks were thinned down to just fifty men by 1891. In 1915 there were only twenty-four left. However, after Pancho Villa's attack on Columbus, New Mexico, in March 1916, General John J. Pershing was ordered to command a punitive expedition into Mexico to capture or kill Villa, in which Apache scouts would be useful. Accordingly, Pershing authorized the enlistment of seventeen new Apache scouts, raising their strength to thirty-nine men. Pancho Villa and his rebels were operating in Chihuahua when Pershing led his army across the international border; the terrain was rugged desert, littered with canyons and other concealed positions, making the pursuit of Villa difficult for the army but not for the Apaches. The scouts were divided into two groups, though they engaged in only two small skirmishes, they had plenty of opportunities to use their tracking abilities against the Villistas and army deserters. The first group headed into Mexico from Fort Huachuca, Arizona, to join up with the 10th Cavalry Buffalo Soldiers, while the second group departed from Fort Apache, to join the 11th Cavalry. By the time the scouts arrived in Chihuahua, Mexico, the hunt for Villa was already suspended by Pershing, due to the defeat in the Battle of Carrizal, in which the Americans engaged Mexican government troops, known as Carrancistas. The hunt was never continued and after that Pershing began a slow withdrawal back to the United States, under President Wilson's orders. The withdrawal continued for months and ended in February 1917. The first battle involving the scouts was fought at Ojo Azules Ranch. On May 5 a small group of scouts joined up with a troop from the 11th Cavalry to attack about 150 Villistas. During the half hour battle that followed the Apaches played a significant role, in all sixty-one Mexicans were killed and another seventy were captured, all without sustaining any casualties. In April 1917, Captain James A. Shannon, 11th Cavalry, wrote an article titled ?"With the Apache Scouts in Mexico"?, which described the tactics employed by the scouts and his experiences with them. Shannon wrote the following; "The Indian cannot be beaten at his own game. But in order to get results, he must be allowed to play that game in his own way. You tell a troop of white soldiers there is an enemy a thousand yards in your front and they will go straight at him without questions. The Indian under the same circumstance wants to look it all over first. He wants to go to one side and take a look. Then to the other side and take a look. He is like a wild animal stalking its prey. Before he advances he wants to know just what is in his front. This extreme caution, which we don?t like to see in the white man, is one of the qualities that makes him a perfect scout. It would be almost impossible to surprise an outfit that had a detachment of Apache scouts in its front. They do not lack courage by any means. They have taken part in some little affairs in Mexico that required plenty of courage, but they must be allowed to do things in their own way. (sic)" The second skirmish occurred at Las Varas Pass on June 1, 1916 after some Villistas stole a pair of United States Army horses from the 5th Cavalry. Shannon wrote; "They started off on the trail and after going a short distance came to a rocky stretch where the trail was hard to follow. They circled out like a pack of hounds and soon one of them gave a grunt and all the rest went over where he was and started off again. After a while the trail seemed to divide, so the detachment split up into two parties following the two trails. After about an hour or so, one of these parties overtook the villistas in a very narrow ravine. They shot two of them, and on account of the narrowness of the pass, unfortunately shot two of the horses, one of which proved to be the private horse of Lieutenant Ely of the Fifth Cavalry. They recovered one government horse and got some Mexican saddles, rifles, etc. (sic)" After the expedition ended in February 1917, the Apache scouts were once again without a real purpose for existence so the army disbanded about half of the force, leaving twenty-two scouts for duty. Their war time service was not completely over though, conflict between the United States Army and Mexicans continued until 1919 and Mexican raids across the border were a frequent occurrence into the 1920s. Black Seminole Scouts Black Seminole Scouts, also known as the Seminole-Negro Indian Scouts, or Seminole Scouts, were employed by the United States Army between 1870 and 1914 as United States Army Indian Scouts. Despite the name, the unit included both Black Seminoles and some native Seminoles. Because most of the Seminole scouts were of African-American descent, they were mainly attached to the Buffalo Soldier regiments, to guide the troops through hostile territory. The majority of their service was in the 1870s in which they played a significant role in ending the Texas-Indian Wars. Service history Texas-Indian Wars By 1870 the native Seminoles were living on a reservation in the Indian Territory but originally they came from Florida. Before the United States government banned slavery in December 1865, several hundred black freedmen escaped their masters and sought refuge among the Seminoles in Florida. Not long after the Seminoles were removed to the Indian Territory, the Black Seminoles, as they became, went to Coahuila, Mexico, to escape enslavement. There they were welcomed by the Mexicans and later joined by native Seminoles, Black Creeks and Black Cherokees. In 1870, the United States Army issued a message to the Black Seminoles' chief, John Horse, inviting him and his band to come back to the United States to enlist as Indian scouts and help fight hostile natives Americans. The Black Seminoles, about 200 people, accepted the agreement, believing that they would be granted land in the United States, food and provisions, as well as reimbursement for traveling costs. Though over the years none of these conditions were met. The future scouts crossed the international border on July 4 and were officially mustered into service on August 18 at Fort Duncan, near Eagle Pass, Texas. However, in July 1872, most of the scouts were moved to Fort Clark, near Brackettville. Their first able commander was a Quaker and Civil War veteran, Lieutenant John L. Bullis, the others were too unreliable to control the unit. Having been a commander of black soldiers during the Civil War, Bullis was trusted by his men and even asked to perform marriages for the tribe. Between May 1872 and 1881, the Seminole scouts fought in several successful engagements with Comanches, Kiowas, Apaches and Kickapoos, sometimes traveling into Mexico, the Indian Territory and Kansas. During their service against hostiles, not a single scout, out of no more than fifty men, was killed or seriously injured. Usually the scouts fought with the cavalry regiments stationed at Fort Clark but occasionally they launched their own operations. Fort Clark was also the headquarters of Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, the leader of multiple expeditions into Mexico to punish hostile natives that crossed the border to raid in the United States. Mackenzie played a key roll in ending the Indian wars in Texas. In 1873, the Secretary of War William W. Belknap and General Philip Sheridan went to Fort Clark for "secret talks" with Mackenzie. It was decided that the colonel would lead a punitive expedition across the border to fight the Lipan and that scouts would guide the way. On May 17, 1873, Colonel Mackenzie crossed the border into Coahuilla with the scouts and a detachment of 4th Cavalry. They fought a successful skirmish against Kickapoo raiders at El Remolino, forced the Mexican Army to keep from intervening and then hastily returned to the fort. During the Red River War, a notable engagement occurred on September 19, 1874, when three Black Seminole scouts and two Tonkawa scouts were sent out by Mackenzie to search for enemies. During the journey the five men were ambushed by about forty Kiowas. The only option was to try and fight their way out and escape. Details of the engagement are unclear but the scout Adam Payne was awarded the Medal of Honor for risking his life to save the others. Under fire, Payne engaged the Kiowas, allowing the other four men to get away. Eventually Payne's horse was shot out from underneath him but he was able to kill one of the attackers and take his horse. Payne was decorated for his "habitual courage" though there is no evidence that he ever received the medal itself. Three more scouts received the Medal of Honor in 1875 for their "bravery and trustworthiness" during a skirmish on April 25 against Comanches who had raided a stagecoach on April 5 and stolen some horses. The scouts John Ward, Isaac Payne and Pompey Factor were with Lieutenant Bullis on an expedition to locate the Comanches encamped on the lower Pecos River. When the camp was found a battle ensued. The scouts dismounted and positioned themselves behind some rocks so that they would appear to be a larger force. According to Bullis' report "we twice took their horses from them and killed three Indians and wounded a fourth" but the hostiles, about thirty of them, eventually discovered the size of the scouting party and attempted to surround it in order to cut off the scouts from their horses. The scouts made it to their horses though and they were on their way back to safety when they realized that Lieutenant Bullis had been left behind. Under heavy fire, the scouts turned around and rescued their commander. In May 1876 Chief John Horse was badly wounded and the scout Titus Payne was killed after a shooting incident in Eagle Pass. There was apparently no effort to catch the shooters because the former outlaw and sheriff John King Fisher was suspected of being responsible. Fisher was a horse thief and cattle rustler in his early life and well known for his hatred of the scouts. By 1876 he was a sheriff and had almost indisputable control over Kinney County. Because of this power Fisher was untouchable. The shooting created unrest among the Black Seminoles and over the course of the next few months there were outbreaks of brawling and rioting. The local American settlers attempted to have the scouts disbanded but others argued that the army should enlist all of the male Black Seminoles as scouts in order to protect them from outlaws and hostile natives. In late August, John Ward's brother, Scott, was accused of stealing five horses and then in September Isaac Payne and Dallas Griner were accused of stealing a horse from Deputy Sheriff Claron Windus. The two evaded arrest and fled to Nacimiento, Mexico but they made the mistake of returning to Brackettville in December to celebrate the coming of the new year. Somehow the sheriff of Brackettville, Lorenzo C. Crowell, learned of the celebration and devised a plan to capture the fugitives. So on the night of December 31, Sheriff Crowell, Deputy Sheriff Windus and a teamster named Jonathan May went to the Seminole's reservation just outside of town and stealthily positioned themselves around the fugitive's camp. One later account of the incident says that a company of soldiers was to assist in the arrest but if this was true they played no active role in the event. At midnight Sheriff Crowell made his appearance, some accounts say the Black Seminoles were dancing at a church when Crowell appeared and others say that the celebrating took place on the property of the scout Friday Bowleg. According to one account, Adam Payne was dancing when he heard Crowell call his name. As he turned, Claron Windus fired upon him with a shotgun and "shot him so close it set him on fire." Other accounts say that there was a struggle while Crowell was trying to handcuff the men and that Adam and the scout Frank Enoch were shot while trying to escape. The scout Bobby Kibbett attacked Windus at that point and while Windus and Crowell were fighting with him Isaac Payne and Dallas Griner got away to Mexico. Adam's body was given to his family for burial and Enoch died during surgery in Brackettville. Bobby Kibbett was later tried and acquitted for attempting to murder Deputy Sheriff Windus and the charges against Isaac Payne and Dallas Griner were dropped. Payne stayed in Mexico for a few weeks before returning to Fort Clark to re-enlist. In 1878 Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie was recalled to the fort in order to lead an expedition against the Kickapoo. After this campaign the Texas- Indian Wars were mosly over, all of the hostile natives were either dead or living in the reservation system. However, on February 23, 1893 the scouts fought in one final skirmish against Mexican bandits at Las Muias Ranch, thirty miles north of Fort Ringgold in Starr County. The Black Seminole Scouts were disbanded twenty-one years later in 1914 and most were forced to leave the Fort Clark reservation with their families. Just twenty-seven Black Seminoles were allowed to remain at the fort but only until the elders of the group had departed. The official report of the disbandment reads as follows; "In compliance with orders contained in the 3rd Indorsement Headquarters Southern Department, May 7th, 1914, and the 5th Indorsement War Department, June 29th, 1914, on communications 2128018-A.A.G.O., April 16, 1914 - Subject Seminole Negro Indian Scouts. The Seminole Negro Indian Scouts will be disbanded and cease to exist as an organization after September 30, 1914. They will be discharged from Service of the United States in three detachments as follows: Privates, Curly Jefferson, Fay July, Sam Washington, and Charles J. July on July 31st, 1914. One third in the Scout camp on the reservation including the families of the scouts discharged July 31st, 1914 will move from the Fort Clark Military between August 1st and August 15th, 1914 with all of their stock and belongings. The following named scouts will be discharged from the Service of United States, September 30th, 1914, - 1st Sgt. John Shields, Privates: Antonio Sanchez, Isaac Wilson and William Wilson. The remainder of the people including the Scouts discharged September 30th, 1914, and their families with the exception of those named in the following paragraph will move from Fort Clark Military Reservation between October 1st and October 15th, 1914 with all of their effects. The following named members of the Scout Camp will be permitted to remain and live on the Fort Clark Military Reservation until the older people pass away in the course of nature, or until such time as the War Department may see fit to order their removal. After the removal of the people from the Scout Camp, the buildings not in use by those permitted to stay, will be demolished." Many of the scouts' remains rest at the Seminole Indian Scouts Cemetery in Kinney County, Texas, including Adam and Isaac Payne and members of their family. Descendants of the Black Seminole Scouts still live in southern Texas and northern Mexico. Alaska Territorial Guard The Original Alaska Territorial Guard Patch created in 1942 The Alaska Territorial Guard (ATG) or Eskimo Scouts was a military reserve force component of the US Army, organized in 1942 in response to attacks on United States soil in Hawaii and occupation of parts of Alaska by Japan during World War II. The ATG operated until 1947. 6,368 volunteers who served without pay were enrolled from 107 communities throughout Alaska in addition to a paid staff of 21, according to an official roster. The ATG brought together for the first time into a joint effort members of these ethnic groups: Aleut, Athabaskan, White, Inupiaq, Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Yupik, and most likely others. In later years, all members of some native units scored expert sharpshooter rankings. Among the 27 or more women members were at least one whose riflery skills exceeded the men. The ages of members at enrollment ranged from 80 years old to as young as twelve (both extremes occurring mostly in sparsely populated areas). As volunteers the Alaska Territorial Guard members were those that were too young or too old to be drafted during WWII. The Original Alaska Territorial Guard Patch created in 1942 One first-hand estimate states that around 20,000 Alaskans participated, officially or otherwise, in ATG reconnaissance or support activities. The ATG served many vital strategic purposes to the entire Allied effort during World War II: They safeguarded the only source of the strategic metal platinum in the Western Hemisphere against Japanese attack. They secured the terrain around the vital Lend-Lease air route between the United States and Russia. they placed and maintained survival caches primarily along transportation cooridors and coastal regions. In addition to official duties, ATG members are noted for actively and successfully promoting racial integration within US military forces, and racial equality within the communities they protected. Several former members of the ATG were instrumental in achieving Alaska Statehood in 1959, as members of the Alaska Statehood Committee and/or delegates to the Alaska Constitutional Convention. In 2000 all ATG members were granted US veteran status by law, acknowledging the contribution of the ATG, some of whose members are still living. But efforts to find the surviving ATG members and assist them through the application process are difficult due to lack of written records, oral cultures, lack of trained staff, passage of time, and unclear bureaucracies and advocates. Nevertheless, active correction of the historical record is proceeding through the Alaska Army National Guard, office of Cultural Resources Management and Tribal Liaison (888 248-3682 toll-free) as well as the Office of Veterans Affairs, State of Alaska, PO Box 5800, Ft. Richardson, AK 99505-5800, 907.428.6016 (Office) Conditions leading up to the ATG Before World War II, Alaska was regarded by US military decision makers as too distant from the contiguous United States to effectively protect, and of little strategic importance. "...the mainland of Alaska is so remote from the strategic areas of the Pacific that it is difficult to conceive of circumstances in which air operations therefrom would contribute materially to the national defense." - General Malin Craig, US Army Chief of Staff, November 1937 This stands in marked contrast to the attitudes of US military leaders during the Cold War immediately after World War II: "...as I continue to correspond and to talk with people throughout the United States and the Department of Defense, they too can see clearly the importance of these two battalions which you make up. The real honest-to- God and real-world first line of defense in Alaska ... nearer our opponent, Communist Russia, than any other armed troops in the United States." - General James F Hollingsworth, Commanding General, United States Army Alaska (USARAL), February 1971 True to the earlier viewpoint, the US Army reassigned all Alaska National Guard units out of Alaska to Washington State in August 1941. Alaska was now without military reserves or any form of Home Guard. In the face of an encroaching enemy, the defense of nearly 34,000 miles (55,000 km) of US coastline was left to the best efforts of unorganized local citizens and already overworked seasonal laborers. That enemy was demonstrating a definite interest in taking Alaska. In the early months of 1942, a Japanese Navy reconnaissance unit was caught on film making detailed surveys of Alaska coastline. Enemy combatants strode unopposed onto American soil and made inquiries among the populace about the local economy. Enemy aircraft and submarine sightings were common, inspiring great fear among the locals, and culminating in the raid on Dutch Harbor and the occupation of the Aleutian Islands of Attu, Kiska and Adak that June. Creation of the ATG By the time of the Dutch Harbor bombing, a Major Marvin R Marston had submitted a new plan to defend the entire Alaska coast by enlisting the local citizens. He had conceived this plan while visiting Saint Lawrence Island and contemplating the fate of the locals he'd met. Marston's proposal finally met with favor when word of it got to Alaska territorial governor Ernest Gruening. Gruening had sought to organize a new guard for Alaska, including every able man and boy, since he got word that the US Army would reassign the Alaska National Guard. Motivated by the recent Dutch Harbor attack, the Alaska Command assigned Major Marston and Captain Carl Schreibner within days to serve as military aides to Governor Gruening. Shortly after, Gruening and Marston flew a chartered plane to begin setting up units of the new Alaska Territorial Guard (ATG). This included one of the most strategically important sites in all Alaska, a tiny mining town called Platinum -- the only source of that strategic metal in all the Western Hemisphere. The enrollment drive continued into early 1943, the organizers travelling in all kinds of weather and by every available mode of transport, including plane, boat, snowmobile, foot, and the most reliable means in the region, dogsled. When a promised plane failed to arrive after a week, Major Marston set out by dogsled on an epic 680-mile (1,090 km) trip around the Seward Peninsula, during the coldest winter in 25 years. He survived by foregoing standard military survival training in favor of the native methods of his Eskimo/Scott guide, Sammy Mogg. Thanks to Marston and Mogg's heroic effort, the ATG stood as a first line of defense for the terrain around the Lend-Lease route from America to Russia, against attack by Japan and the Axis Powers. This vital lifeline allowed the US to supply its Russian ally with essential military aircraft. This lifeline had proven to be crucial to Russia's survival during Hitler's Operation Barbarossa. Organization of the ATG Authority The Alaska Territorial Guard (ATG) was organized in June 1942 under the authority of the office of the territorial governor, Ernest Gruening, who served as Commander-In-Chief. All members took an oath to obey the Governor's orders. The governor was directly supported by the ATG Adjutant General, J P Williams. Headquarters was in the territorial capital, Juneau. Mission The mission of the ATG was to play a defensive role for the entire coast of Alaska. Offensive action was the responsibility of the Pacific Theatre commanders, operating from large bases at Dutch Harbor, Cold Bay and Anchorage. Explicit within the ATG mission was that of protecting the terrain around the American terminus of the Lend-Lease air route to Russia on which warplanes were flown from Great Falls, Montana to Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, Canada, then to Ladd Field, Alaska (now Eielson AFB) and on to Nome. Here, Russian pilots flew the planes on to their intended use, combat against Hitler's Third Reich. By Date The Alaska Territorial Guard operated from its inception in June 1942 until it was officially disbanded on 31 March 1947. By Geographic Area The Territory of Alaska was divided vertically by the 156th Parallel into Eastern and Western Areas. To the Eastern Area was added Southwest Alaska, including the Aleutian Islands, which had been evacuated of non-combatants. The Western Area had a Field Headquarters in Nome, with the offices of the Commander, Quartermaster, Instructors, Public Relations Officer and Chaplains. Other field staff were located in Anchorage, Koyuk, Selawik and Gambell (on Saint Lawrence Island, where Major Marston first conceived his plan). The Eastern Area was headquartered in Juneau and held the offices of Property Officer (a role filled by the Adjutant General) and Instructors. Field staff were assigned to Glacier Highway, Douglas, Ketchikan, Palmer, Hoonah and Sitka. By Ethnic Group The Alaska Territorial Guard was drawn from 107 communities and from these ethnic groups: Aleut, Athabascan, White, Inupiaq, Haida, Tlingit, Tsimshian, Yup'ik, and probably more. By Rank The ATG, being organized by US Army officers, made use of the same US Army rank structure, with these exceptions: Throughout the duration of the ATG, no member rose above the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, including the Adjutant General. The designation "Private" appears to have been little used, though most members were in fact of Private rank. By Workload and Pay The 21 staff officers were all full-time, paid positions (except for the governor, whose ATG duties were in addition to his regular office and without added salary). All other positions were strictly part-time volunteer, without pay. By Sex That total includes at least 27 ATG members who were women. Most women served as nurses at the field hospital in Kotzebue, although at least one woman served the ATG's primary mission alongside the men. Laura Beltz Wright of Haycock is also noted for being the best sharpshooter in her company, scoring 98% bulls-eyes. She was chosen Queen of Fairbanks in a beauty contest, an honor her daughter later shared. One of her sons rose to become an airline vice president. By Age The age of ATG members at enrollment ranged from 80 years old to as young as twelve, even though official regulations put the minimum age at sixteen. By Number All told, there were 6,389 members of the Alaska Territorial Guard (ATG), according to an official roster. Unofficial tally Alongside those who served in the ATG, many others worked to support them, including food service, providing equipment and supplies to the Quartermaster, repair work, etc. Major Marston put the estimate at 20,000 Alaskans who materially participated in ATG activities, in his Western Area alone. ATG Activities All ATG members except the 21 staff officers served without pay, and had to perform their new ATG duties in addition to the often difficult challenges of subsisting in Arctic and extreme marine environments. The ATG trained for and/or actively carried out the following: Issuing of weapons and ammunition Instruction, drill and target practice Transport of equipment and supplies Construction of ATG buildings and facilities Construction of airstrips and support facilities for other military agencies as needed Coastal and inland scouting patrols Breaking hundreds of miles of wilderness trails Setup and repair of dozens of emergency shelter cabins Distribution of emergency food and ammunition containers for the US Navy Firefighting Land and sea rescue Enemy combat The ATG received commendations for: Shooting down Japanese air balloons carrying bombs and eavesdropping radios Rescue of a downed airman In addition, some ATG members performed the following: Medical care at the field hospital in Kotzebue ATG Artists During the 1930s, as part of FDR's New Deal programs to ease the country out of Great Depression, the Works Progress Administration (WPA) hired many noted American artists. On the US entry into World War II, several WPA artists took work with the War Department. A few of these artists made their way to Alaska to help document the Aleutian Campaign and other Alaskan military operations, including the new Alaska Territorial Guard. Some of their work was featured nationwide on a number of wartime posters. The artists included: Magnus Colcord "Rusty" Heurlin - An ATG lieutenant, his painting was reproduced as the posters "Back the Attack" and "From Metlakatla to Barrow - The Territorial Guard". Joe Jones] Henry Varnum Poor - His "Major Muktuk Marston Signs Up Soldiers" now hangs in the Pentagon's Hall of Fame. Other artists, born in Alaska and already well-known, gained further exposure through contact with ATG members and artists: Florence Nupok Melewotkuk - a Siberian Yupik from Saint Lawrence Island. Her work was promoted in the 1920s by Otto Geist, later an ATG major. George Aden Ahgupuk - a Shishmaref artist since boyhood, he was befriended by Major Marston, who wrote and spoke of his artistry within and outside the ATG. ATG influences Plaque honoring the ATG and the Alaska National Guard at the Alaska Veterans Memorial Several former members of the ATG were instrumental in achieving Alaska Statehood. In 1958 three of the eleven members of the Alaska Statehood Committee were former ATG members. Seven delegates to the Alaska Constitutional Committee had served with the ATG. Both are listed below under Noted ATG Members. The ATG actively and successfully promoted racial integration in the US Army by proving the worth of native Americans as soldiers within US military forces much as the Navajo, Commanche and Choctaw Code talkers did elsewhere during World War II. ATG members were also active in promoting racial equality in their communities, insisting on equal treatment for natives and whites alike at movie theaters, restaurants and other public facilities. Recent developments Discharge ceremony, 2008 In 2000 Alaska's senior US Senator, Ted Stevens, sponsored a bill ordering the Secretary of Defense to issue Honorable Discharges to all Americans who served in the Alaska Territorial Guard (ATG). Stevens was himself a World War II veteran, flying with the Army Air Corps in China. The bill was signed into law by President Bush that August. Because of disagreement as to whose responsibility it was to seek the ATG veterans out to inform them of the new law, and because of the advanced age and geographic isolation of many of the veterans, a temporary position, filled by retired colonel Robert A "Bob" Goodman, was created in the Alaska Department of Military & Veterans' Affairs (DMVA) in 2003, to find and assist as many former ATG members as possible. After the position ended that October, Bob continued the work, on his own and funded out of his own pocket. In support of this effort, he founded the Alaska Territorial Guard Organization (ATGO), a 501(c)(3) non-profit, in April 2006. He continues the work with the help of a small paid and volunteer ATGO staff. To date, they have found and helped obtain an honorable discharge for about 150 ATG members. They estimate there are several hundred more yet to be found. Bob Goodman and the ATGO have pled the case of the ATG members and spouses with US senators two Alaskan governors, most of the state legislature, the Anchorage Assembly, as well as numerous Alaska Native Regional Corporations and other corporations and foundations. Timeline of ATG-related events U.S government poster from WWII 1931 - The Imperial Japanese Army invades Manzhou (Manchuria), confirming its intent to dominate East Asia and the Pacific. 1935 - Billy Mitchell declares Alaska's strategicically important, goes unheeded by US military leadership. Earlier, Billy Mitchell was court- martialled for advocating the value of military air power. 1937 - The US Army officially declines a request for an air base in Alaska. 1939 - Ernest Gruening is appointed Alaska territorial governor by his friend, US President Franklin D Roosevelt (FDR). Gruening gets four National Guard units organized in the Alaska Territory. 1940, March - A bill for an air base in Alaska fails to pass in the US House. 1940, April - Hitler invades Norway and Denmark (whose territory includes Greenland). 1940, May - US Congress approves an air base in Alaska. Air raids from northern Alaska would help counter any Nazi bases built in Greenland, as a polar projection map will attest). 1941, March - Marvin Marston is commissioned at the Pentagon as a major with orders to Alaska. Mid-1941 - Ernest Gruening seeks a new guard organization for Alaska, anticipating the reassignment of the Alaska National Guard. 1941, August - The US Army reassigns Alaska National Guard soldiers away from Alaska, leaving the state with no military reserves or Home Guard. 1941, December 7 - The Imperial Japanese Navy bombs the USA at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, sinking most of the US Pacific Fleet. Soldiers' families are ordered evacuated from Alaska. 1942, Feb-March - A Japanese Navy reconnaissance unit is filmed making detailed surveys of the Alaska coastline. Japanese crewmen (enemy combatants) came ashore and questioned the locals about the area. 1942, March - Major Marston realizes the practicality of a 'tundra army' to defend the entire Alaskan coast. 1942, March - Japanese aircraft are sighted over Saint Lawrence Island. 1942, Mar/April - Major Marston presents a formal plan for the defense of Alaska shoreline. 1942, June - Japanese forces raid Dutch Harbor and take control of Attu, Kiska and Adak. 1942, June - The Alaska Command assigns Major Marvin Marston and Captain Carl Schreibner as military aides to Governor Gruening. Gruening and Marston soon embark on a trip to form the first units of the new Alaska Territorial Guard. 1942 - Major Marston (by now known as "Muktuk" after an eating contest with a village headman) opts to make an ATG recruiting run by dogsled when a promised plane fails to show up. 1943, January - Major Marston completes his circuit around the Seward Peninsula by dogsled during the coldest winter in 25 years. Living by native methods, he continues to travel the Arctic through 1945. 1945, August - VJ Day, The Empire of Japan surrenders. 1947 - The Alaska Territorial Guard is disbanded. 1966 - The State of Alaska awards a medal to all ATG members. 2000 - US Senator Ted Stevens' (R-AK) bill granting ATG members full veteran status is passed into law. Little is done to find and inform surviving ATG members and spouses, many of whom relocated numerous times in the intervening 53 years. 2003 - Robert A "Bob" Goodman, Colonel (Retired), Alaska Air National Guard, takes up the task of finding as many former ATG members as possible, to help them apply for recognition as US veterans. 2006 - Bob Goodman founds the Alaska Territorial Guard Organization, a 501(c)(3) non-profit, to support his efforts on behalf of all former ATG members. To date, they have found and helped gain approval for about 150 ATG veterans. Noted ATG members Atwood, Robert - Editor and publisher of the Anchorage Times, ATG lieutenant, Statehood Committee chair Egan, William A - territorial & state representative, ATG corporal, Constitutional Convention president, state governor Geist, Otto William - Pioneer Alaskan archaeologist, promoter of Alaskan artist Florence Nupok Malewoktuk, ATG major and quartermaster. The University of Alaska Museum's main building is named for him. Gruening, Ernest - Friend of FDR, territorial governor, ATG founder, Statehood Committee member, US Senator Heurlin, Magnus Colcord "Rusty" - WPA artist, ATG lieutenant, famed Alaskan artist, first art teacher at the University of Alaska Fairbanks, influenced fellow artist Fred Machetanz Ipalook, Fred - Inupiaq native, ATG lieutenant, teacher for 39 years. Ipalook, Percy - Inupiaq native, ATG chaplain, territorial & state legislator, Stathehood Committee member Johnson, Maurice Theodore - ATG member, Constitutional Convention delegate Jorgensen, Holger - ATG sergeant, commercial airline pilot Knight, William Wellington - ATG member, Constitutional Convention delegate Lisbourne, Daniel - ATG member, mayor Marston, Marvin R "Muktuk", Major, US Army - ATG organizer of Western Alaska, Constitutional Convention delegate, author of the book Men of the Tundra: Alaska Eskimos at War McNeally, Robert J - ATG corporal, Constitutional Convention delegate Mogg, Samuel Snell "Sammy" - ATG lieutenant, guide who led Major Marston by dogsled on an epic 680-mile (1,090 km) mid-winter organizing circuit around the Seward Peninsula. Nolan, James - ATG member, Constitutional Convention delegate Peratrovich, Frank J - Tlingit native; ATG captain; mayor; territorial & state representative; senator & senate president; Statehood Committee member; Constitutional Convention first vice president Reader, Peter L - ATG member, Constitutional Convention delegate Schreibner, Carl, Captain, US Army - ATG organizer of Eastern Alaska Wright, Laura Beltz - ATG member, best sharpshooter in her company, shooting 98% bulls-eyes, former Queen of Fairbanks Navajo Scouts Navajo scouts and a cavalryman at Fort Wingate, circa 1890. The Navajo Scouts were part of the United States Army Indian Scouts between 1873 and 1895. Generally, the scouts were signed up at Fort Wingate for six month enlistments. In the period 1873 to 1885, there were usually ten to twenty-five scouts attached to units. United States Army records indicated that in the Geronimo Campaign of 1886, there were about 150 Navajo scouts, divided into three companies, who were part of the 5,000 man force General Nelson A. Miles put in the field. In 1891 they were enlisted for three years. The Navajos employed as scouts were merged into regular units of the army in 1895. At least one person served almost continuously for over twenty-five years. Service History Enlistments Between 300 to 400 Navajos served enlistments as Indian Scouts. Most of them came from the south eastern part of the reservation and the checkerboard area. Over 125 Navajo Scouts or their spouses received pensions between the 1920s and the 1940s. After the Long Walk of the Navajo, army records indicate that Major William Redwood Price of the 8th Cavalry gave permission for fifteen Navajo to join him on a trip from Fort Wingate to Fort Apache in April 1871 but they were not "scouts". In January 1873 authorization was given "to enlist and discharge 50 Indian Scouts" in the New Mexico Territory. Major Price employed at least twenty-five Navajos in that first enlistment at Fort Wingate and they were very busy until their discharge in August 1873. Most of the scouts came from the south eastern part of the reservation and the checkerboard area. Some men repeated their enlistments. Navajos reported that Mariano (Hastiin Litsots'ósí) told the Navajos if they did not want to be Scouts they would have to move out of this non-reservation country; so they agreed to become scouts. Lieutenant Colonel P. T. Swaine reported on 21 November 1876 to the District of New Mexico that he had an "...interview with the Chief Mariano through whose influence the last Scouts were (obtained)." On 1 June 1877 Lieutenant Henry Wright, 9th Cavalry, reports that he "enlisted 21 Navajo Indians to serve as Scouts selecting them from about 100 who presented themselves for enlistment, they are young and able men and well mounted." The army continued to employ Navajos as scouts through 1895. Indian Wars The scouts out of Fort Wingate were engaged in fighting Victorio's Apache braves from 1876 to 1880. In 1877 they participated in a battle at the Florida Mountains, of New Mexio and again in 1879 at Las Animas Creek. Lieutenant Henry Wright and Scout Jose Chavez were both commended for bravery in an 1877 action and the latter was still in the army in 1891 at Fort Wingate. The Navajo scouts were used by General George Crook in finding Juh, Nana and Geronimo between 1881 and 1886. General Nelson A. Miles put 150 Navajos in the field as part of his 5,000 troop deployment against Geronimo in 1886. Navajo scouts accompanied the United States Army when it investigated many civilian-Navajo confrontations. For example, between June 14 and September 28, 1883 there were five different Navajo reservation related activities. Lieutenant Parker, with ten enlisted men and teo scouts, went up to the San Juan River to separate Navajos and citizens who encroached on Navajo land. Lieutenant Guy, with seventeen enlisted men and two scouts, and Captain Smith, with 56 enlisted men and five scouts helped the local Indian agent deal with unhappy Navajo chiefs. This involved Manuelito, Torlino, Grando Muncho and fifty armed Navajos who were upset by raids of citizens and other tribes on their people and livestock. In another action: Lieutenant Lockett, with forty-two enlisted men, were joined by Lieutenant Holomon at Navajo Springs. Evidently a citizen named Houck and or Owens had murdered a Navajo chief's son and 100 armed Navajos were looking for them. It is evident from these four months of military reports from the field that the officers tended to trust the Navajo version of events. Navajo scouts were used in 1891 when over sixty armed Hopi were prepared to fight to prevent their children being sent away to boarding school. There was a reference in a 1891 military report, that the reporting officer knew Navajos since 1853 and commanded fifty Navajo's in Benjamin Bonneville 1857 expedition against the Apaches, and had complete confidence in their friendship. "After coming back from Fort Sumner to Fort Wingate some of our people became scouts for the military police or the Army. The Chishi Dine'e (Chiricahua Apaches) got in trouble with the Army, and the Navajo scouts fought with the Army. The Navajos helped in that way. Many of our people have told about this helping the Army, and some passed away still saying it." Howard W. Gorman, Navajo Stories of the Long Walk Period page 42. In the late 1920s scouts became eligible for pensions. Many men were enlisted under nicknames and had lost their discharge papers. These men gave depositions about their service and vouched for others to Crown Point Indian Agent S. F. Stacker and Pension Examiner C. R. Franks in the late 1920s to early 1940s. Crow Scouts Crow Scouts were first used by the United States Army in 1876 during the Great Sioux War. Because the Crow tribe was generally peaceful with the Americans, the army was able to enlist Crow warriors to help track hostile native Americans. A small group of Crow scouts witnessed General George A. Custer's defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and later some former scouts fought in the Crow War of 1887. Service History Great Sioux War In April 1876 the small Crow tribe was living under army control at the Crow Agency in Montana. The Sioux and Cheyenne were traditional enemies of the Crow so at the beginning of the Great Sioux War, several Crow warriors enlisted to guide Custer's expedition to the Little Bighorn River. Six Crow scouts and thirty-nine Arikara scouts witnessed the Battle of the Little Big Horn, from June 25 to 26. Custer, leading over 500 men, intended to crush at least 900 encamped Cheyenne, Sioux and Arapaho warriors by delivering a three-pronged assault but ultimately the Americans were repulsed, leading to the deaths of over 250 soldiers. Four of the scouts, Curly, Goes Ahead, Hairy Moccasin and White Man Runs Him rode with Custer's column while two others, Half Yellow Face and White Swan rode with Major Marcus Reno. Custer's scouts were relieved just before the beginning of the main battle because they changed out of their blue uniforms and put on their tribal wear. The scouts angered Custer and said they wanted to die like warriors, not as soldiers. Seventeen year old Curly refused to leave though but through the insistence of Mitch Bouyer, a mixed-blood French and Lakota guide, the young man was convinced to depart with the other three scouts. Curly watched the fight through a spy glass, from the top of a ridge, about a mile and a half away from the battlefield. When the fighting was over he eluded Sioux horsemen for two days until finally reaching the steamboat Far West at the confluence of the Little Bighorn and Bighorn Rivers. Using sign language, Curly was able to communicate the first report of Custer's defeat. After being relived, White Man Runs Him, Goes Ahead, Hair Moccasin and the Arikara scout Strike the Bear joined up with Reno's column and the other two scouts. They were briefly engaged in battle from the top of a ridge, repulsing a Sioux charge. All of them survived and retreated with Major Reno, except White Man Runs Him who continued fighting under Colonel John Gibbon who rescued Reno's men on June 26. When the war was over, the Crow scouts were no longer needed and subsequently disbanded like the Arikara and Sioux scouts. However, in 1887, some former scouts were involved in the brief Crow War. During which the United States Army fought a successful battle against hosltile Crows just north of the Little Bighorn battlefield.
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